printer port robot
only works with windows 98 or pre-windows 98
Link to page which explains how to enable windows NT/2000/XP with userport.zip
The pc printer port can usually be switched on & off using one of the following
lines of QBASIC
The number'0' is altered according to which wires you want switched on or off.
Either one of these lines constitutes a program, you have to run it for it to work.
Although the printer port has 25 connections, only 8 of them are switchable outputs.
Here 4 of these outputs are being used to control a simple robot
The desired permutation of 'ons' and 'offs' is obtained by using a binary number.
For example the binary number 0101 (of which the decimal equivalent is 5) will switch
both motors on forwards.
Try the first of the QBASIC lines with this number
and see if anything happens. If nothing happens, try the other one
The first one usually works.
The reason the robot has no wheels is that the printer port only just supplies enough current to run a high-impedance motor (walkman motor or Mabuchi solar motor) quite slowly; any form of cheap
gearbox will inevitably jam. By using the motor axle as a wheel you achieve a gear-reduction without any gears. Putting a plastic bush on the axle improves the grip.
Usually the printer port would be used to switch transistors which would in turn switch the motors, however this makes it a lot more complicated.
Assuming that the first of the QBASIC lines worked, the other ones you need will be
(first motor reverse, second motor forward- '6' is the decimal of binary 0110)
(first motor forward, second motor reverse- '9' is the decimal of binary 1001)
(both motors on reverse- '10' is the decimal of binary 1010)
OUT 888,0 switches both motors off.
Binary numbers up to 11111111 (decimal 255) can be used to switch all eight outputs.
An easy way to create a time delay is with a for-next loop, for example
FOR n=0 TO 10000: NEXT
will create a short but perceptible time delay, its precise length will depend on the speed of the computer's processor. To make the delay longer, use a bigger number
FOR n=0 TO 70000: NEXT
a smaller number will give a shorter interval.
This program will switch both the motors on briefly, then reverse just one of them
FOR n=0 TO 9000: NEXT
This animation illustrates how binary numbers are used as a way of controlling outputs
Another use for outputs is to switch LEDs, here two LEDs are connected to the first two outputs and to the printer port earth via a 10 ohm resistor. The resistor is to limit the current and probably isn't necessary
if the LEDs are switched on and off using the following program and the ruler is waved rapidly back & forth the image of a face will appear
FOR n= 0 TO w:NEXT
FOR n= 0 TO 5 * w:NEXT
FOR n= 0 TO w:NEXT
FOR n= 0 TO 15 * w:NEXT
The variable w defines the width of the image; the multiplier 5 defines the width of the mouth; 15 defines the space between the faces. The program keeps going round the WHILE-WEND loop until escape is pressed (escape is ASCII code 27).
If the program is made more sophisticated the face can be made to wink etc, using more LEDs (up to 8 can be used altogether)will permit much more interesting images. A much better way of doing this is by using a Nipkov disc.
If the following program is run
a number will appear on the screen, for example 120.
If a wire is now connected from the earth pin on the printer port to one of the input pins
and the program is run the number should change. The new number might be 56 for example.
If you found that the printer port responded to the number 632 then the program should be
There are five input pins altogether. Earthing the other ones should produce different numbers, for example 248,88,104,112. Don't try to understand the significance of these numbers- I never do. The same pin will always produce the same number. Earthing different permutations of the pins will produce different numbers again.
This is a slightly better program for showing this
This means 'keep going round the loop while escape is not being pressed'; it continually shows the number which corresponds to the earthing or otherwise of the input pins.
Having established that the two numbers 120 and 56 say indicate whether the earth connection is touching the first input pin you can make a collision switch for your robot
and write a program for it
This is just like the last program, but it has an extra line that switches the robot on
IF INP(889)=56 THEN PRINT "there has been a collision"
Again very similar except it switches the robot off when you press 'escape'. What you really want is a program which says 'reverse if you hit something'
IF INP(889)=56 THEN OUT 888,10
Unfortunately this only works for one collision, it would be better if it said 'if you hit something then if you had been going forwards go backwards, otherwise go forwards (because by implication you must have been going backwards to begin with).
This is a good illustration of the difficulty of translating common sense into logic. Because we develop common sense naturally (if we are lucky) we are unaware of its complexity.
IF INP(889)=56 THEN IF d=5 THEN d=10 ELSE d=5
This introduces a variable, d (it could be called anything) which is used to describe the direction of the robot.
In practice this doesn't work very well because the computer goes round the loop thousands of times a second and when it collides with something it tends to get smitten with indecision. This can be fixed by introducing a time delay: 'if you've hit something back off a bit before asking yourself if you've hit anything again'
IF INP(889)=56 THEN IF d=5 THEN d=10 ELSE d=5
IF INP(889)=56 THEN FOR n=0 TO 1000:NEXT
Even an apparently simple physical system can have undreamed-of snags.
Mechanical ingenuity can be a much more powerful design tool than electronics.
In my example, the second input gives the number 248 when it's earthed. If the first input is earthed at the same time it gives the number 184.
It's possible to isolate the inputs by 'binary anding'. If either or both of the two inputs might be earthed, the following will isolate just the first one
PRINT INP(889) AND 248
this will give 56 even if they are both earthed; similarly
PRINT INP(889) AND 56
will isolate the second input.
This is really all the programming knowledge you need to read PWM (pulse width modulation); there are now many cheap but sophisticated sensors on the market which use a PWM output, for example
another colour detector
assuming you connect the PWM output from these devices to the first input (you also have to connect the earths together), the following program will give a number which indicates accelaration, colour etc
a simple interface
The golden rule of electronics is 'it doesn't work'.
The skill lies not so much in building things but in finding out why they don't work when you've built them. This is an interface designed with this rule in mind
It uses just 4 commonly available transistors and nothing else, because they are arranged symetrically on the strip board it is topographically simple, notice the earths are connected. It's very unlikely that you'll damage anything with just a single battery, also it gives a very consistant current, suitable for a writing robot.
The interface will respond to the binary numbers 00,01 and 10 (decimal 0,1 and 2) so the program
will switch the motor on in one direction
will reverse it, incidentally the equivalent command in 'C' is
the input command is also very similar
you have to include "dos.h". I have never been able to find a good reason for not using QBASIC. Apparently you can even do it with
This is a frictionless linear motion transducer for use with an analogue light sensor
it can also be used as a rotary transducer
patterns on eggs
more machine vision
simple ultrasound robot
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my email is email@example.com
Transistors at a glance
these are some widely-available transistors. The numbers TO5, TO126 and P1b are the generic 'case styles' which enable you to identify which terminal is which. The other number is the number of the specific transistor. The BFY51 in the middle is shown superglued to a setscrew to act as a heatsink.